Q.1) Which of the following has more fire-resisting characteristics?
C) Compact sand stone
Q.2) Which of the following timbers is suitable for making sports goods?
Q.3) Excess of alumina in brick earth makes the brick :
B) Brittle and weak
C) To lose cohesion
D) To crack and warp on drying
Alumina helps to improve the strength and durability of the brick by reducing shrinkage during firing and enhancing its resistance to heat and chemical corrosion. Alumina also helps to form a glassy bond between the clay particles, which increases the density and hardness of the brick.
Q.4) The normal consistency of ordinary Portland cement is about :
The relative ease with which a cement paste can be combined, applied, and finished is referred to as consistency. It is calculated by the volume of water required to make the paste a given level of flexibility or workability.
The strength, setting time, and other qualities of the finished concrete or mortar are significantly influenced by the cement’s consistency. It is usually calculated as a proportion of the weight of the cement to the amount of water using a tool called a flow table or a Vicat instrument.
Q.5) Which of the following types of cement is suitable for use in massive concrete structures such as large dams?
A) Ordinary Portland Cement
B) Low heat cement
C) Rapid hardening cement
D) Sulphate resisting cement
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) : The most popular kind of cement used in construction is called Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). OPC is adaptable and can be utilised for a variety of purposes, including decorative coatings as well as structural and architectural foundations. The exact formulation and the curing conditions have an impact on the material’s strength, setting time, and durability.
Low Heat Cement : When compared to regular Portland cement, low heat cement produces less heat during the hydration process. In large concrete constructions like dams and foundations, where excessive heat generation can lead to cracking and damage, it is especially helpful.
Rapid Hardening Cement : It is a type of cement that sets and hardens quickly, typically within a few hours. It is used in applications where early strength is required, such as in precast concrete products, repair work, and emergency construction.
Sulphate Resisting Cement : It is a type of cement that is resistant to the harmful effects of sulphate attack, which can cause deterioration and cracking in concrete. It is used in environments where the soil or groundwater contains high levels of sulphate, such as in marine and coastal structures, sewage treatment plants, and chemical factories.
Q.6) The most common admixture which is used to accelerate the initial set of concrete is :
B) Calcium chloride
C) Calcium carbonate
D) None of the above
Q.7) Which of the following is the purest form of iron?
A) Cast iron
B) Wrought iron
C) Mild steel
D) High carbon steel
Cast iron : It consists of carbon content typically ranging from 2% to 4%. It is a brittle material that can be cast into intricate shapes, making it ideal for the production of decorative items, machine parts, and cookware.
Wrought iron : It is an iron type with a very little amount of carbon, usually less than 0.1%. It is a ductile and malleable substance that can be forged and bent. Fencing, gates, and decorative wrought iron work are frequently made of wrought iron.
Mild steel : It is a type of low carbon steel that contains less than 0.25% carbon. It is strong and ductile, making it suitable for use in construction, automotive manufacturing, and other applications where strength and flexibility are important.
High Carbon Steel : A type of steel known as high carbon steel has a carbon content more than 0.6%. It can be used in applications where strength and hardness are crucial, including cutting tools, blades, and springs, because it is hard and brittle. High carbon steel is often regarded as a highly impure kind of steel since, depending on the precise formulation, it may contain other elements including manganese, chromium, and nickel.
Q.8) The type of bond provided in brick masonry for carrying heavy loads is :
A) Single Flemish bond
B) Double Flemish bond
C) English bond
D) Zigzag bond
Q.9) The type of footing which is used to transmit heavy loads through steel columns is –
A) Raft foundation
B) Grillage foundation
C) Well foundation
D) Isolated footing
Raft foundation : It is a type of foundation that is used to support a building or structure on a large and solid slab of concrete over weak or unstable soil, which extends over the entire footprint of the building. Raft foundations helps to distribute the weight of the building more evenly over the ground.
Grillage foundation : A network of steel beams or concrete bars are laid on top of the ground and covered with concrete to create this sort of foundation. Heavy constructions like transmission towers and bridges are supported by foundations, which can assist spread the weight of the structure more uniformly across the ground.
Well foundation : It is a type of foundation that is used to support structures that are built over water, such as bridges or offshore platforms. The foundation consists of a large, hollow cylinder, called a caisson, that is sunk into the water and filled with concrete or other material to create a stable base for the structure.
Isolated footing : It is a type of foundation where a column or post is supported by a single pad of reinforced concrete. The footing is ideal for light or medium loads and is built to disperse the column’s weight over a broader area of soil. In residential and small business building, isolated footings are frequently used.
Q.10) The maximum total settlement for raft foundation on clayey soils should be limited to –
A) 25 mm
B) 25 – 40 mm
C) 40 – 65 mm
D) 65 – 100 mm
As per IS : 1904 – 1966, the maximum permissible settlements
1. For Isolated Footing :
On Sandy Soils – 40 mm
On Clayey Soils – 65 mm
2. For Raft Foundation :
On Sandy Soils – 65 mm
On Clayey Soils – 65 to 100 mm
3. Differential Settlements :
On Clayey Soils – 40 mm
On Sandy Soils – 25 mm
Q.11) The function of cleats in a roof truss is :
A) To support the common rafter
B) To support purlins
C) To prevent the purlins from tilting
D) All of the above
Q.12) Which of the following mortar is most suitable for construction work in water-logged areas?
A) Lime mortar
B) Gauged mortar
C) Cement mortar
D) Mud mortar
Q.13) Timber can be made more fire resistant by :
A) Dipping and steeping process
B) Sir Abel’s process
D) Hot and cold open tank treatment
Dipping and Steeping process : The objective of this process is to remove impurities, such as dirt, grease, and oil, from raw hides and skins, and to prepare them for further processing, such as tanning.
Sir Abel’s process : This is a method of tanning hides and skins using chromium salts.
Charring : It is a process in which wood or other organic material is partially burned, creating a layer of charred material on the surface. The objectives of charring are to make the material more resistant to fire, insects, and decay, and to improve its appearance.
Hot and cold open tank treatment : It is a procedure used to clean metal parts of contaminants including oil, grease, and dirt. The procedure’ goals are to make the pieces more aesthetically pleasing and ready for additional processing, including plating or coating. The parts are subjected to a chemical solution during the procedure, and the contaminants are then washed away while the pieces soak.
Q.14) Distemper is used to coat :
A) External concrete surfaces
B) Interior surfaces not exposed to weather
C) Wood work
D) Compound walls
Paint made of water, chalk, and pigment is known as distemper. It is a cheap and quick paint that is frequently applied to interior walls and ceilings. Distemper paint is less resistant to wear and tear than other forms of paint, particularly in high-traffic areas.
In comparison to other forms of paint, it is also more susceptible to moisture and humidity, which over time may cause it to fade or peel. Distemper paint may be quickly cleaned with water or a damp cloth and is frequently employed for short-term or cost-effective projects.
Q.16) The disease of dry rot in timber is caused by :
A) Lack of ventilation
B) Alternate wet and dry conditions
C) Complete submergence in water
D) None of the above
Dry rot is a type of decay that is caused by certain species of fungi that feed on the cellulose and lignin in the wood. Dry rot can occur in damp and poorly ventilated areas, where moisture levels are high and the wood is not able to dry out properly. It can also be caused by leaks or water damage, which can allow moisture to penetrate into the wood.
A white or grey fungal growth on the surface of the wood is often the first indication of dry rot in timber. The wood may become discoloured, brittle, and fractured as the rot spreads, and it may release a musty or wet odour. In extreme circumstances, the wood may weaken and become structurally unstable, increasing the chance of failure or collapse.
By making sure that timber is properly treated and shielded from moisture and water damage, dry rot can be avoided. This might involve routine maintenance, such as fixing leaks and making sure wet areas have excellent ventilation, as well as employing the right timber treatment techniques, such as preservatives or coatings. If dry rot is detected, it is critical to take action right away to stop further harm to the wood and the nearby structure. In order to stop the fungus from spreading, this may involve replacing the damaged wood and treating the surrounding region.
Q.17) The age of a tree can be known by examining :
A) Cambium layer
B) Annular rings
C) Medullary rings
D) Heart wood
Q.18) The practical limit of moisture content achieved in air drying of timber is :
Q.19) Excess of silica in brick earth results in :
A) Cracking and warping of bricks
B) Loss of cohesion
C) Enhancing the impermeability of bricks
D) None of the above
Q.20) The process of mixing clay, water and other ingredients to make brick is known as :