Q.1) Jumper is a tool used for :
A) Testing of stones
B) Quarrying of stones
C) Dressing of stones
D) None of the above
When building a masonry wall, two stone pieces are joined together with a jumper tool. Jumper tools are often used to tie two pieces of stone together in order to transfer weight from one stone to another.
They can be found in a range of sizes and forms to accommodate various stone kinds and wall configurations and are frequently constructed of metal or other durable materials.
In masonry building, jumper tools are crucial to ensuring that the walls are structurally sound and able to bear the forces that are applied to them.
Q.2) Which of the following stones is best suited for construction of piers and abutments of a railway bridge?
B) Sand stone
C) Lime stone
Granite: Massive grains of interlocking minerals, chiefly quartz, feldspar, and mica, make up the large grains that make up the igneous rock type known as granite. It is one of the strongest and toughest rocks, making it a preferred option for countertops and other construction uses.
Sandstone : A sedimentary rock known as sandstone is made up of quartz and other minerals in sand-sized grains. Even though it usually has a light tone, it can have a variety of tints and shades. Stone walls and floor tiles made of sandstone are popular architectural components.
Limestone : Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock that is made up of calcium carbonate and other minerals. It is made up of the remains of marine organisms and comes in a variety of colours such as white, grey, cream, and yellow. Limestone is widely used in construction, both as a building material and as a component of cement.
Quartzite : Quartzite is a sandstone-derived metamorphic rock. It is extremely hard and durable and is made up of interlocking quartz grains. Quartzite is frequently used as a decorative stone, as well as in the manufacture of countertops and other building materials.
Q.3) The moisture content in a well seasoned timber is :
A) 4 – 6%
B) 10 – 12%
C) 15 – 20%
Q.4) The main function of alumina in brick earth is :
A) To impart plasticity
B) To make the brick durable
C) To prevent shrinkage
D) To make the brick impermeable
Composition of bricks :
1.Silica – 55%
2.Alumina – 30%
3.Iron Oxide – 8%
4.Magnesia – 5%
5.Lime – 1%
6.Organic Matter- 1%
Functions of various components in bricks are :
Alumina : It acts as cementing material and makes the brick plastic in nature. However, excess amount may cause the bricks to shrink.
Silica : It prevents raw brick from cracking, shrinking and warping. However, excess quantity may eradicate cohesion property in brick and may make it brittle in nature.
Lime : It acts as binding material as a result making it strong and durable. However, excess lime may cause vitrification in bricks.
Iron Oxide : It imparts red color to brick. It also increases the impermeability and durability of bricks.
Magnesia : It imparts yellow tint color and decreases shrinkage. However, excess amount may cause bricks to decay.
Q.5) Which of the following bricks are used for lining of furnaces?
A) Overburnt bricks
B) Underburnt bricks
C) Refractory bricks
D) First class bricks
Overburnt bricks: Overburnt bricks are those that have been exposed to excessive heat during the firing process. When exposed to excessive heat, the brick becomes hard and brittle, making it more prone to cracking and crumbling. The brick’s surface may also become discoloured or even glass-like. Overburned bricks may not be strong enough to be used in construction in some cases.
Underburnt bricks: Underburnt bricks are those that have been exposed to an insufficiently high temperature during the firing process. When exposed to low temperatures, the brick becomes soft and porous, making it more susceptible to water damage and crumbling. It is also more prone to becoming discoloured or stained as a result of exposure to the elements.
Refractory Bricks: Bricks that are manufactured from refractory substances, such as fireclay, are known as refractory bricks. Because it can withstand high temperatures, fireclay is a particular kind of clay that is perfect for use in furnaces, kilns, and fireplaces. Refractory bricks are stronger than regular bricks because they are made to endure high temperatures.
First class bricks: First class bricks are the highest quality bricks available, made from the best clay, sand, and water. They are fired at a high temperature in a kiln, resulting in a durable and strong brick. First-rate bricks have a smooth, uniform texture and no visible cracks, chips, or other flaws. These bricks are also referred to as “face bricks” because they are frequently used on the exterior of buildings.
Q.6) The main constituent which imparts hydraulicity to hydraulic lime is :
A) Calcium oxide
Constituents of lime :
Clay : The component responsible for creating hydraulic properties in lime and causing it to be insoluble in water is present in varying amounts. Too much of it can stop slaking, while too little can slow it down. An ideal range is between 8 to 30 percent for producing good quality lime. It also makes lime insoluble in water.
Soluble silica : For hydraulic properties to develop in limestone, the presence of silica and alumina in chemical combination is necessary. Calcium, magnesium, and aluminum silicates are what give rise to hydraulic properties and are inactive at low temperatures. However, they become active and react with lime when subjected to high temperatures.
Magnesium Carbonate : This component helps in enhancing the setting process. Lime with not more than 5% magnesium carbonate yields better results and provides hydraulic properties. However, limes with high levels of magnesium carbonate are prone to cracking.
Alkalies and Metal Oxides : When present in small quantities, typically up to around 5%, they can promote hydraulic properties by forming soluble silicates at low temperatures.
Sulphates : The addition of small amounts of sulfates speeds up the setting process and reduces the slaking effect.
Iron : At high temperatures, a small amount of lime may lead to the formation of complex silicates.
Pyrites : Lime with pyrite should be rejected as it is an undesirable and harmful component.
Q.7) Early attainment of strength in rapid hardening cement is mainly due to :
B) Finer grinding
C) Tricalcium silicate
D) Tricalcium aluminate
Q.8) The slump recommended for mass concrete is about :
A) 25 – 50 mm
B) 50 – 100 mm
C) 100 – 125 mm
D) 125 – 150 mm
- Normal RCC work = 50 – 120 mm
- Canal Lining = 75 – 100 mm
- Lightly reinforced sections in slabs, beams, walls, columns, floors, hand placed pavements, canal lining and strip footings = 25 – 75 mm
- Road Construction = 20 – 40 mm
- Mass Concrete = 25 – 50 mm
- Concrete to be vibrated = 10 – 25 mm
Q.9) The maximum quantity of calcium chloride used as a accelerator in cement in percentage by weight of cement is :
Q.10) Which of the following stresses is used for identifying the quality of structural steel?
A) Ultimate stress
B) Yield stress
C) Proof stress
D) None of the above
Ultimate Stress :The maximum stress a material can endure before failing or permanently deforming is known as the ultimate stress. It is the heaviest load a material can support without failing or rupturing.
Yield stress : It is the amount of tension at which a material starts to distort plastically and cannot be restored to its initial shape after being released. At this stress threshold, permanent deformation starts to occur.
Proof stress : It is the amount of tension that causes a material to permanently distort to a predetermined degree. It gauges how well a material can endure deformation when subjected to load. The minimum permissible strength of a material is frequently determined using the proof stress as a starting point.
Q.11) In brick masonry, the bond produced by laying alternate headers and stretchers in each course is known as :
A) English bond
B) Double Flemish bond
C) Zigzag bond
D) Single Flemish bond
English Bond : The English bond, the strongest of all brick bonds, is achieved by alternating courses of headers and stretchers in brick construction. This pattern can be applied to walls of various thicknesses, and the strength of the bond is maintained through the use of alternating courses of headers and stretchers.
Double Flemish Bond : Double Flemish Bond is a decorative brick laying pattern that includes headers and stretchers in each course. The headers in this bond are laid centre over the joint formed by two stretchers below, creating a repeating pattern of headers and stretchers. This bond is commonly used in the construction of walls, chimneys, and fireplaces because it provides good structural stability.
Zig-Zag Bond : The Zigzag Bond is a decorative brick laying pattern that gives the wall a zigzag appearance. Each course in this bond alternates between a header and a stretcher, with the headers from one course laid in the middle of the stretchers from the course below. The Zigzag Bond is a decorative bond that is not as strong as the Flemish or English bonds.
Single Flemish Bond : The Single Flemish Bond is a decorative brick laying pattern that alternates between headers and stretchers in each course. This bond, like the Double Flemish Bond, is less common. The headers are laid over the joint formed by two stretchers below in the Single Flemish Bond, creating a repeating pattern of headers and stretchers. The Single Flemish Bond is commonly used in the construction of walls, chimneys, and fireplaces because it provides good structural stability.
Q.12) Expansion joints in masonry walls are provided in wall lengths greater than :
A) 10 m
B) 20 m
C) 30 m
D) 40 m
Q.13) The differential settlement in case of foundations on sandy soils should not exceed :
A) 25 mm
B) 40 mm
C) 65 mm
D) 100 mm
Q.14) The minimum depth of foundation in clayey soils is :
A) 0.5 m
B) 0.7 m
C) 0.9 m
D) 1.2 m
Q.16) The type of floor suitable for use in churches, theatres, public libraries and other places where noiseless floor covering is desired is –
A) Cork flooring
B) Glass flooring
C) Wooden flooring
D) Linoleum flooring
Q.17) The type of roof which slopes in two directions with a break in the slope on each side is known as –
A) Gable roof
B) Hip roof
C) Gambrel roof
D) Mansard roof
Q.18) The maximum number of steps in a flight should generally be restricted to :
Q.19) Which of the following test is used to determine the rate of wear of stones?
A) Crushing test
B) Abrasion test
C) Attrition test
D) Impact test
Q.20) Neoprene is suitable for use in :
A) Bearings of bridges
B) Hard duty rubber coatings of floors
C) Joinery works
D) Floors of dance halls